Skip to main content

Enslaved persons

Subject Source: Library of Congress Subject Headings

Found in 70 Collections and/or Records:

Bill of sale, John Augustine Washington to Bushrod Washington, 1785 October 17

 Item — Box 10, Folder: 1785.10.17
Identifier: 2022-SC-007-016
Scope and Contents Bill of sale, John Augustine Washington to his son, Bushrod Washington. John Augustine Washington testifies, 'five shillings to me in hand paid by the said Bushrod Washington before the sealing and delivery of these presents the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged Have Given, Granted, Bargained sold and conveyed...the following Negroe Slaves.." Includes list of slaves by name. Signed by "John Augt. Washington" and witnessed by Jenny [Jane] Washington, Theodorick Lee and Corbin Washington....
Dates: 1785 October 17

Diary of John Augustine Washington, 1856-1857

 Item — Box 107, Shelf: Closed Stacks
Identifier: MS-5184
Scope and Contents

The first entry in the diary is a 3 page "List of negros", belonging to John Augustine Washington. The list includes names, birthdates, and sources of acquisition. Other entries in the diary are regarding business, financial matters, and the management of Mount Vernon.

Dates: 1856-1857

Diary of John Augustine Washington III, 1847 July 8 - 1850 March 9

 Item — Box 6
Scope and Contents

Includes "List of Negroes" and Mount Vernon farming and maintenance details. Loose note at the front reads "Extracts from the diary of my father" with notes on this diary and previous ones.

Dates: 1847 July 8 - 1850 March 9

Division of Bushrod Washington's stocks and slaves, 1830 April 5

 Item — Box 2, Folder: 17
Scope and Contents

A copy from the County Court of Fairfax of the division of the slaves and stocks from the estate of Bushrod Washington amongst his nephews. Includes a list of the names of the enslaved persons that went to each nephew, with their values.

Dates: 1830 April 5

Document, "An Inventory of the Estate of Lawrence Washington Esqr. deceased, as Apprais'd by us the Subscribers...", 1753 March 7-8

 Item — Box 33, Folder: 1753.03.08
Identifier: RM-736; MS-4964
Scope and Contents

Compiled by and entirely in the hand of George Washington, the inventory of his late elder half brother's estate lists, by room, furniture, books, and other household items in the Mansion as well as slaves, horses, livestock and other chattels.

Dates: 1753 March 7-8

Document, Detailed list of enslaved workers on French's farm, probably 1799 July 15

 Item — Box 15, Folder: 1799.07.15
Identifier: RM-1195
Scope and Contents

George Washington rented the slaves from Mrs. Penelope Manley French, widow of Daniel French of Rose Hill. In July 1799, Washington wrote to Mrs. French’s son-in-law, Benjamin Delany about returning the slaves.

Dates: probably 1799 July 15

Document, "Memorandum of the Division of Slaves of the Late Lawrence Washington Esq.", 1754 December 10

 Item — Box 1, Folder: 1754.12.10
Identifier: RM-698; MS-4745
Scope and Contents

This document divides Lawrence Lewis' slaves between Col. George Lee and the brothers of Lawrence Washington. It is signed by GW, George Lee, Ann Lee, and Aug. Washington. Witnessed by William Fairfax, George William Fairfax, Robert Merrie, John Dalton, Thomas Plummer, John Tuberville, John Carlyle, Sarah Carlyle, and Bryan Fairfax.

Dates: 1754 December 10

Document, Slave Census, 1799 July

 Item — Box 35, Folder: 1799.07.00
Identifier: A-366.65; W-1475
Scope and Contents

Lists Mount Vernon enslaved people, their relationships, occupations, and place of residence on the estate -- a list of "the negroes hired from Mrs. French." Autograph document, entirely in hand of George Washington, oversize document, laminated, George Washington's complete watermark. | Date on original catalog card appears [1799][July]. | [Probably prepared for information of his executors at the time he was drawing his will in July, 1799]. |

Dates: 1799 July

Document, Spinning Report, 1793 January 12

 Item — Box 25, Folder: 1793.01.12
Identifier: A-283.91
Scope and Contents

This document is a report of the recent work done at George Washington's Mount Vernon estate: Spinning, yarn and stocking yarn, making shirts, stockings. Work done by 10 women, all named.

Dates: 1793 January 12

Document, Spinning Report, 1793 August 10

 Item — Box 26, Folder: 1793.08.10
Identifier: A-283.102
Scope and Contents

Report of recent work done at Mount Vernon by 10 named women spinning yarn and stocking yarn, washing, sewing breeches, knitting stockings.

Dates: 1793 August 10

Document, Spinning Report, 1793 February 16

 Item — Box 25, Folder: 1793.02.16
Identifier: A-283.95
Scope and Contents

Report of work recently accomplished at Mount Vernon by 8 named women: Spinning hemp, stocking yarn and shoe thread; making shirts, sheets and shift, knitting stockings.

Dates: 1793 February 16

Document, Spinning Report, 1793 March 23

 Item — Box 25, Folder: 1793.03.23
Identifier: A-283.100
Scope and Contents

Report of recent work done at George Washington's Mount Vernon estate by 8 women: Spinning tow, "sown shoe maker Thread," stocking yarn, winding twine for seine maker, a shift & knitting stockings, "making 13 bax" [bags?].

Dates: 1793 March 23

Estate, list of enslaved people of Martha Washington, 1801 March 5

 Item — Box 9, Folder: 08, Folder: OUT
Scope and Contents Manuscript titled "A List of Negroes belonging to Mrs. Washington." A list of 121 enslaved persons who were Martha's dower slaves. Unlike the slaves owned by George Washington, Martha's slaves were not freed after her death and were inherited by the Custis descendants. Men, boys, women, and girls and listed in separate columns, each further broken down into the places where they worked: Mansion house, River Farm, Muddy Hole, and Union Farm. Five women - Amy, Alice, Peg, Agnes, and Old Judy -...
Dates: 1801 March 5

John Augustine Washington III, Alexandria, to Eleanor Love Selden Washington, 1858 December 29

 Item — Box 1, Folder: 26
Identifier: RM-528 ; MS-4456
Scope and Contents

Encloses letter from Magruder Mason. Gives instructions for delivering slaves George, Charlotte and Milly who have been hired out.

Dates: 1858 December 29

John Augustine Washington, Ledger C, 1774-1789

 Item — Box 91, Shelf: Bound Manuscripts/Ledgers
Identifier: RM-73 ; MS-2166
Scope and Contents Name index. pp. 1-107 ledger entries, 108-141 blank, 142-155 missing, 156-176 copies of leases deeds, etc. watermark.Box also contains loose items that originally went with the ledger including: 1) 1771 July 31. Letter, Anne Haulworth to "dear Madam," A.N.S. Request for 25 pounds of sugar ... 2) 1773 August 12. Letter, Jesse Coats to John Augustine Washington. A.N.S. Coats requests Washington to pay Thomas Blane the money Washington owes Coats ... 3) 1778 September...
Dates: 1774-1789

Ledger, 1776-1795

 Item — Box 2
Identifier: 2020-SC-028-025
Scope and Contents

Autograph ledger dating 1776-1795 with miscellaneous information including purchases, loan certificates and numbers, list of clothing distributed to enslaved persons, and payments made to Jacob Young in 1795. Bound in marble paper and held together with straight pins, 32 pages. Several pages missing.

Dates: 1776-1795

Letter, Bushrod Washington to unknown recipient, 1803 January 8

 Item — Box 38, Folder: 1803.01.08
Identifier: RM-1115; MS-5798
Scope and Contents

Subject of the letter deals with dispersal of George Washington's property, including the sale of land and mules. It also discusses the terms of the hiring of nineteen of Mrs. Penelope French's enslaved people, in which Mrs. French was paid $700-800 a year throughout her natural life.

Dates: 1803 January 8

Letter, from Anthony Whitting, 1793 January 16

 Item — Box 25, Folder: 1793.01.16
Identifier: A-301.147
Scope and Contents Washington's farm manager reports the bad conduct of Thos. Green, carpenter -- will not use delegated authority concerning Green, because realizes he is necessary -- good men are hard to come by -- suggests an addition of carpenters, or estate will be a long time in improving -- mentions all the buildings that need to be built or repaired -- wishes farms to look neat -- will put up fences and gates -- suggests moving post and rail fence at Dogue Run to make meadow correspond to fields -- new...
Dates: 1793 January 16

Letter, from George Augustine Washington, 1790 August 20

 Item — Box 24, Folder: 1790.08.20
Identifier: A-301.134
Scope and Contents Safe arrival of Will--expected him home at Mt. Vernon sooner--his great anxiety to do right in Washington's affairs--considering moving Anthony Whiting to place occupied by Fairfax when he goes--estimate of Whiting's capabilities and character--Garner [Wm. Gardener, overseer of the River Plantation?] is leaving too, wants higher wages--Mr. Gwin in Alexandria has recommended a young boy of respectable family to take Garner's place--he has had no experience--no family--George A. Washington...
Dates: 1790 August 20

Letter, from George Augustine Washington, 1790 March 26

 Item — Box 23, Folder: 1790.03.26
Identifier: A-301.131
Scope and Contents Paid account to Porter & Ingraham, after satisfying himself they were valid--will no more let mares or jennets be taken away from Mt. Vernon before being paid for breeding with Jacks--rest of mares from Mr. Zantzinger have come--encloses his letters [see letters of March 9 & 14, P. Zantzinger to G.A.W.]--is making inquiries for person to take Fairfax's place as overseer--son of James DeNeil is no good in job at Dr. Stuart's--Mr. Gevins is good, but wants his own plantation when...
Dates: 1790 March 26

Letter, from Lund Washington, 1775 December 3

 Item — Box 18, Folder: 1775.12.03
Identifier: A-283.33
Scope and Contents Will alter servants hall since it is not intended for a wash house--thinks Jennifer Adams has not made a deed for his land unless very recently--Adams wanted to clear himself on charges of cutting timber--will try to get Washington out of bargain with Adams--run-away slave--thinks there will be no action on stopping navigation of Potomac or erecting batteries--will talk to Col. [Geo.] Mason about it--Mason ill--Committee for county chosen recently, lists names--Connelly [Tory] captured while...
Dates: 1775 December 3

Letter, from Lund Washington, 1776 February 22

 Item — Box 18, Folder: 1776.02.22
Identifier: RM-106; MS-227.7
Scope and Contents

Informing Washington of affairs at Mt. Vernon, the condition of the negroes, advising some improvements to Mt. Vernon, and information about the movements of the British.

Dates: 1776 February 22

Letter, from Lund Washington, 1778 March 11

 Item — Box 19, Folder: 1778.03.11
Identifier: A-283.15
Scope and Contents Rain and snow prevented his going up to see Washington--will leave for camp last of month--flour and corn for sale, had to sell to govt.--will sell barrels of pork and beef--difficulties getting salt--doubts Lanphier will come to work this spring--who to leave to manage housekeeping in his absence?--Bishop not trustworthy and Milly Posey away from home-will sell negroes at private sale--meeting among Loudon draftees--[John Parke] Custis not returned from Williamsburg--Mrs. Custis and...
Dates: 1778 March 11

Letter, from Lund Washington, 1778 March 4

 Item — Box 19, Folder: 1778.03.04
Identifier: A-283.14
Scope and Contents Covering horse arrived--bond signed with Triplett for land below mill race--Robt. Adam pd. account--"I have a great mind to put the Money into the Continental Loan office, but perhaps it would be proper to get your approbation first"--[Mrs. Mary Washington] wants Silla sent to her, but Lund hates to part her from Jack--[Charles Washington] wrote for another hand but he didn't send one--tobacco land to be put to flax--pumpkin to be planted--per simmons for beer and spirits--mare sent by Col....
Dates: 1778 March 4

Letter, Gabriel Johnson to John Augustine Washington III, 1845 August 6

 Item — Box 66, Folder: 1845.08.06
Identifier: 2018-SC-058-004
Scope and Contents Letter in the hand of Henry P. Hill, likely dictated by Gabriel Johnson from Bruin's Slave Jail in Alexandria. Gabriel tells his side of the story following an disagreement with Joseph McFarland, John Augustine's overseer at Mount Vernon. According to Gabriel, McFarland threatened to whip him, but Gabriel "told him that he could not whip me as I did not think any person but my master out to do it or at least to authorize it." McFarland tied Gabriel up, but he escaped. When he was recaptured,...
Dates: 1845 August 6

Letter, George Washington Parke Custis to William Winston, 1857 January 28

 Item — Box 74, Folder: 1857.01.28
Identifier: A-330
Description Letter to his new steward about affairs on his estates -- poor condition of his negroes -- has had many complaints about their treatment -- "to get the negroes comfortably housed, & provided with clothes and blankets will be the first of acts of your administration" -- he knows nothing of what goes on on his estate -- settlement with Rail Road -- they have only the right away through the White House on the Pamunkey plantation, anything else must be paid for. Autograph letter signed,...
Dates: 1857 January 28

Letter, H. T. Harrison to John Augustine Washington III, 1845 December 15

 Item — Box 67, Folder: 1845.12.15
Identifier: 2018-SC-016-002
Scope and Contents

Autograph letter signed with integral address panel. Leesburg to Mount Vernon. Harrison talks about turning an enslaved woman named Julia into a house servant and hiring out an enslaved man named Bob.

Dates: 1845 December 15

Letter, H. T. Harrison to John Augustine Washington III, 1845 December 29

 Item — Box 67, Folder: 1845.12.29
Identifier: 2018-SC-016-003
Scope and Contents

Leesburg. Harrison writes to Augustine about Julia, an enslaved woman, who has taken "French leave" after Harrison struck her half a dozen times with his horse whip for disobedience. Harrison thinks Julia may have gone to Mount Vernon and asks Augustine to write if he has seen her.

Dates: 1845 December 29

Letter, Henry P. Hill to John Augustine Washington III, 1845 August 19

 Item — Box 66, Folder: 1845.08.19
Identifier: 2017-SC-010-005
Scope and Contents Letter from Alexandria slave dealer Henry P. Hill of the firm Bruin and Hill writing to John Augustine Washington III about an enslaved man named Gabriel who has escaped from Mount Vernon and is being held at Bruin's Slave Jail. Hill writes, "your man Gabriel by strict measurement is five feet five and a half inches... He is likely and a very good man of his stature and if you are offered more than we priced him at I think if you will excuse a stranger for the expression of his opinion in...
Dates: 1845 August 19

Letter, James Monroe to unknown, 1828 April 11

 Item — Box 2, Folder: 28
Identifier: 2021-SC-004-028
Scope and Contents

James Monroe, signer of the Declaration of Independence, writes to an unknown sir, regarding the sale of enslaved people. Autograph letter, signed. 1 page.

Dates: 1828 April 11